ANGLO – MYSORE WARS
After the death of the Raja of Mysore of the Wodeyar dynasty in 1760, Hyper Ali became the ruler of Mysore. He extended his territories over Bednore, Sundre, Sera, Canara, and Guti, and also subjugated some parts of south India. At this time, Warren Hasting faced stiff resistance from the Marathas in the north and Hyper Ali in Mysore.
First Anglo – Mysore War (1767-69)
Hyper Ali gained some success even the British and almost captured Madras. In 1767, the Nizam, the Marathas, and the English made a Triple Alliances against Hyper Ali of Mysore as they were jealous of his increasing power. But Hyper Ali beat the English at their own game by making peace with the Marathas and luring the Nizam with territories gains. He attacked Arcot. The British were shocked as they incurred heavy losses. They had to sign a treaty of peace and mutual help with Hyper Ali.
Second Anglo- Mysore War(1780-84)
In 1780, the English wanted to attack the French at Mahe, situated on the west coast of Mysore. Hyper Ali did not permit it. Therefore, the English declared war against Hyper Ali and his alliance with the Nizam and the Marathas. Hyper Ali captured Arcot by defeating the English army. The broke the alliance. In spite of that, Hyper Ali gave a crushing defeat to the British.
Hyper Ali died but his son, Tipu Sultan, continued to fight against the British. THE battle concluded after the Treaty of Mangalore in 1784 when both the parties decided to restore each other’s conquered territories and set the prisoners free.
Third Anglo- Mysore War (1789-92)
Tipu Sultan, allied with the French and invaded the nearby state of Travancore in 1789, which was a British ally. The British were already looking for an excuse to crush Tipu’s power. Hence, a war started between the two, resulting in the defeat of Mysore. The war ended after the siege of Srirangapattnam in 1792. Tipu was forced to sign the Treaty of Sriangapattnam. Mysore had to hand over half of its territory to the British along with Tipu’s two sons as war hostages.
Fourth Anglo- Mysore War (1799)
When Lord Wellesley became the Governor-General of India in 1798, Tipu Sultan’s alliance with the French was seen as a threat to the East India Company. As a result, Mysore was attacked from all four sides. The Nizam of Hyderabad and the Marathas launched an invasion from the north and the British attacked from the south, east and west. The British won a decisive victory at Srirangapattnam in 1799. Tipu was killed during the defense of the city. Much of the remaining Mysorean territory was annexed by the British, the Nizam and the Marathas. The remaining core, around Mysore and Srirangpattnam, was restored to the Indian prince belonging to the Wodeyar dynasty who ruled till 1947.
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