ANGLO- MARATHA WARS
The internal problems of the Marathas and the growing ambition of the English saw the conflict of interests between the British and the Marathas during the period between 1775 to 1818.
First Anglo- Maratha War (1775-82)
British wanted to sign an alliance with aspiring Peshwa, Raghunath Rao against Madhav Rao II. The Maratha chieftains backed Madhav Rao. The British provided 2,500 men to Raghunath. He gave Salsette and Bassein to the English along with a part of the revenue from Broach and Surat district. The two sides signed the Treaty of Salbai (1782). It gave the British 20 years of peace with the Marathas.
Second Anglo- Maratha War (1803-05)
In 1801, there was a conflict among the Marathas over Peshwaship. Peshwa Baji Rao II entered the Subsidiary Alliance with the British and got the British protection against Jaswant Rao Holkar. The British troop drove Holkar out. Peshwa Baji Rao signed a treaty with the British. It Anglo- Maratha War in 1803.
The Maratha chiefs failed to unify and were defeated by the well- equipped and disciplined British army. The Bhosales and Sindhis were forced to sign treaties with the British and handover large territories.
Third Anglo- Maratha War (1807-18)
Peshwa Baji Rao II did not like his subordinate position under the British. He tried to unite the Maratha chiefs against the British but failed. He was forced to surrender. The British abolished the position of Peshwa and Marathas were limited to the small kingdom of Satara. This was the end of the mighty Maratha power.
Between 1814 to 1826, the British had to fight many wars against Gurkhas in the North and the Burmese in the North- East. The British signed peace treaties with them.